Sunday, January 17, 2010

Governor Generals of India

Governor Generals of India

Lord William Bentinck (1828 – 1835):
• Carried out the social reforms like Prohibition of Sati (1829) and elimination of thugs (1830).
• Made English the Medium of higher education in the country (After the recommendations of Macaulay).
• Suppressed female infanticide and child sacrifice.
• Charter Act of 1833 was passed; made him the first Governor General of India. Before him, the designation was Governor General of Bengal.

Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835 – 1836): Abolished all restrictions on vernacular press (called Liberator of the Press).

Lord Auckland (1836 – 1842): The most important event of his reign was the First Afghan War, which proved to be a disaster for the English.

Lord Ellenborough (1842 – 1844)

Lord Hardinge I (1844 – 1848)

Lord Dalhousie (1848 – 1856):
• Opened the first Indian Railway in 1853 (from Bombay to Thane).
• Laid out the telegraph lines in 1853 (First was from Calcutta to Agra).
• Introduced the Doctrine of Lapse and captured Satara (1848), Jaipur and Sambhalpur (1849), Udaipur (1852), Jhansi (1853) and Nagpur (1854).
• Established the postal system on the modern lines through the length and breadth of the country, which made communication easier.
• Started the Public Works Department. Many bridges were constructed and the work on Grand Trunk Road was started. The harbors of Karachi, Bombay and Calcutta were also developed.
• Made Shimla the summer capital.
• Started Engineering College at Roorkee.
• Encouraged science, forestry, commerce, mineralogy and industry.
• In 1854, “Wood’s Dispatch’ was passed, which provided for the properly articulated system of education from the primary school to the university.
• Due to Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar’s efforts, remarriage of widows was legalized by Widow Remarriage Act, 1856).

Viceroys Of India

Lord Canning (1856 – 1862):
• The last Governor General and the first Viceroy.
• Mutiny took place in his time.
• On Nov, 1858, the rule passed on to the crown.
• Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse.
• The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were established in 1857.
• Indian Councils Act was passed in 1861.

Lord Elgin (1862 – 1863)

Lord Lawrence (1864 – 1869):
• Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe.
• High Courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865.
• Expanded canal works and railways.
• Created the Indian Forest department.

Lord Mayo (1869 – 1872):
• Started the process of financial decentralization in India.
• Established the Rajkot college at Kathiarwar and Mayo College at Ajmer for the Indian princes.
• For the first time in Indian history, a census was held in 1871.
• Organised the Statistical Survey of India.
• Was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a Pathan convict in the Andamans in 1872.

Lord Northbrook (1872 – 1876):

Lord Lytton (1876 – 1880):
• Known as the Viceroy to reverse characters.
• Organised the Grand ‘Delhi Durbar’ in 1877 to decorate Queen Victoria with the title of ‘Kaiser – I – Hind’.
• Arms Act(1878) made it mandatory for Indians to acquire license for arms.
• Passed the infamous Vernacular Press Act (1878).

Lord Ripon (1880 – 1884):
• Liberal person, who sympathized with Indians.
• Repeated the Vernacular Press Act (1882)
• Passed the local self – government Act (1882)
• Took steps to improve primary & secondary education (on William Hunter Commission’s recommendations).
• The I Factory Act, 1881, aimed at prohibiting child labour.
• Passed the libert Bill (1883) which enabled Indian district magistrates to try European criminals. But this was withdrawn later.

Lord Dufferin (1884 – 1888):
• Indian National Congress was formed during his tenure.

Lord Lansdowne (1888 – 1894):
• II Factory Act (1891) granted a weekly holiday and stipulated working hours for women and children, although it failed to address concerns such as work hours for men.
• Categorization of Civil Services into Imperial, Provincial and Subordinate.
• Indian Council Act of 1892 was passed.
• Appointment of Durand Commission to define the line between British India and Afghanistan.

Lord Elgin II (1894 – 1899):
• Great famine of 1896 – 1897. Lyall Commission was appointed.

Lord Curzon (1899 – 1905):
• Passed the Indian Universities Act (1904) in which official control over the Universities was increased.
• Partitioned Bengal (October 16, 1905) into two provinces 1, Bengal (proper), 2.East Bengal & Assam.
• Appointed a Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer to enquire into the police administration of every province.
• The risings of the frontier tribes in 1897 – 98 led him to create the North Western Frontier Province(NWFP).
• Passed the Ancient Monuments Protection Act (1904), to restore India’s cultural heritage. Thus the Archaeological Survey of India was established.
• Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act (1899) and put India on a gold standard.
• Extended railways to a great extent.

Lord Minto (1905 – 1910):
• There was great political unrest in India. Various acts were passed to curb the revolutionary activities. Extremists like Lala Laipat Rai and Ajit Singh (in May, 1907) and Bal Gangadhar Tilak (in July, 1908) were sent to Mandalay jail in Burma.
• The Indian Council Act of 1909 or the Morley – Minto Reforms was passed.

Lord Hardinge (1910 – 1916):
• Held a durbar in dec, 1911 to celebrate the coronation of King George V.
• Partition of Bengal was cancelled (1911), capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1911).
• A bomb was thrown at him; but he escaped unhurt (Dec 23, 1912).
• Gandhiji came back to India from S.Africa (1915).
• Annie Besant announced the Home Rule Movement.

Lord Chelmsford (1916 – 1921):
• August Declaration of 1917, whereby control over the Indian government would be gradually transferred to the Indian people.
• The government of India Act in 1919 (Montague – Chelmsford reforms) was passed.
• Rowlatt Act of 1919; Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919).
• Non – Cooperation Movement.
• An Indian Sir S.P.Sinha was appointed the Governor of Bengal.
• A Women’s university was founded at Poona in 1916.
• Saddler Commission was appointed in 1917 to envisage new educational policy.

Lord Reading (1921 – 1926):
• Rowlatt act was repeated along with the Press act of 1910.
• Suppressed non-cooperation movement.
• Prince of Wales visited India in Nov.1921.
• Moplah rebellion (1921) took place in Kerala.
• Ahmedabad session of 1921.
• Formation of Swaraj Party.
• Vishwabharati University started functioning in 1922.
• Communist part was founded in 1921 by M.N.Roy.
• Kakory Train Robbery on Aug 9, 1925.
• Communal riots of 1923 – 25 in Multan, Amritsar, Delhi, etc.
• Swami Shraddhanand, a great nationalist and a leader of the Arya Samajists, was murdered in communal orgy.

Lord Irwin (1926 – 1931):
• Simon Commission visited India in 1928.
• Congress passed the Indian Resolution in 1929.
• Dandi March (Mar 12, 1930).
• Civil Disobedience Movement (1930).
• First Round Table Conference held in England in 1930.
• Gandhi – Irwin Pact (Mar 5, 1931) was signed and Civil Disobediance Movement was withdrawn.
• Martydorm of Jatin Das after 64 days hunger strike (1929).

Lord Willington (1931 – 1936):
• Second Round Table conference in London in 1931.
• On his return Gandhiji was again arrested and Civil Disobedience Movement was resumed in Jan 1932.
• Communal Awards (Aug 16, 1932) assigned seats to different religious communities. Gandhiji went on a epic fast in protest against this division.
• Third Round Table conference in 1932.
• Poona Pact was signed.
• Government of India Act (1935) was passed.

No comments: